One Living Hope

An Encounter with the Confronter of our Hypocrisy (John 2:12-22)


One of our favorite songs to sing to our little girl is “Jesus loves me this I know, for the Bible tells me so.” My parents were not believers when I was growing up and they did not ever sing that song to me and I’m not even sure if they know the song today, but ever since I learned it, I have always loved that song. We should sing it because it’s true. Jesus has an amazing crazy love for us. But today we are going to look at not the love of Jesus, but His anger. Have you ever wondered what makes Jesus really angry? I mean what literally works Him up to the point where He is ready to explode? What does He hate? Does He hate anything? We are going to look at one thing that Jesus definitely hates. I mean whenever we see Him talking about this, He is not smiling about it.

What is it you ask? Hypocrisy.  It is not so much you have it, but the fact that you deny having it and you don’t see it in your life. We all have some measure of it inside us like a disease eating away at us. But the more we don’t see it and let it grow within us, the worse we become. When it gets really bad is when it is “deliberate deception, trying to make people think we are more spiritual than we really are.”[1] In the Bible the word “hypocrisy” means one who pretends to be other than he really is—a pretender.[2] In other literature during Biblical times, it was used as mostly in the sense ‘play-actor, role-player.’[3]

In fact, “it was a custom for Greek and Roman actors to speak in large masks with mechanical devices for augmenting the force of the voice; hence the word became used metaphorically of ‘a dissembler, a hypocrite.’”[4] The word “hypocrite” is found 17x in the New Testament, with 13 of them being found in the Gospel of Matthew. This is not surprising as Matthew’s audience consist mostly of Jews who were caught up in appearances and religion without authenticity and relationship.

We are going to move on to the second encounter of this series. This is found where we left off last time. John 2:12-22. We talked about Jesus being the Satisfier of our Souls. Down with religion! Up with relationship! Out of shame and embarrassment, he brought joy and celebration. Today we are going to see a very different picture of Jesus. He is full of grace, but He is also full of truth. He is the Lamb of God who has come to take away the sins of the world (John 1:29), but also the Lion of the Tribe of Judah.

Here in John, Jesus has shown up into a world that has really lost what it meant to have a relationship with God. He brought new wine of relationship and now He is going to clean house to set the priorities straight. This is not going to be pretty folks. Let’s all just step away from the vehicle! The Lion is about to roar! Worship has become business. Profit has taken over prayer. Amazement of God has become amusement. Hypocrisy is running rampant like a house infested with termites. Cancer is eating away at every cell of the Temple. There’s a new sheriff in town! The exterminator has come! Why is the Lord going to make a big deal about this? I’m going to do something different today. Usually we go over a scene of the story and then stop to glean the implications it has for us before moving to the next scene. But today, I am going to retell this story and then pull out the principles at the end.

We last left Jesus at the wedding banquet. Water was turned into wine…a miracle! After this He goes to Capernaum, about 16 miles northeast of Cana and could easily be reached in a day’s journey in about six to eight hours. Jesus and His disciples are hanging out with his family because they are all getting ready to head over to Jerusalem for the Passover. Notice the text says, Jesus “went up” to Jerusalem (John 2:13). This is because it is of a higher elevation, a mountain city. Pilgrims would sing the Psalms of Ascent (Ps. 120-134) on their journey.

By the way, the Virgin Mary was not always a virgin. This is contrary to some who teach that she did not have any more children after Christ. Jesus had half-brothers and sisters (Mark 6:3), all younger than he who were the children of Joseph and Mary. In fact, did you know that the book of James and Jude are written by the half-brothers of Christ? Amazingly, they both refer to themselves as “servant of Jesus Christ” (James 1:1Jude 1:1). John 2:13 tells us that the Passover was at hand. This is one of three Passovers mentioned in the Gospel of John (John 6:411:55).

Passover was an annual feast of the Jews. It was usually held at the end of March or beginning of April. It celebrates the time when God got His people out of Egypt when the angel of death “passed over” those whose doorposts had blood on it (Ex. 12). Not sure if there is any significance of this or not, but it called the Passover of the Jews here, but in Exodus 12:27, it was called the “Passover of the LORD.”  Is it called this because it was no longer remembering what God had done for His people, but more of a ritual? It was supposed to be a time they remember that out of despair, God had given them hope. Out of bondage, the Lord brought freedom and out of death, He brought life.

Every male Jew, from age 12 on up, who lived within 15 miles of Jerusalem, was obligated to attend the Passover feast in Jerusalem.[5] All other Jews made it their goal to attend at least one Passover in their lifetime. So this is a lot different from a town wedding. There is a lot more noise and lots more people. By this time in John 2, Jews were scattered all over the world. But many would travel thousands of miles from all over to attend Passover. Sometimes you can have up to 2.25 million Jews in Jerusalem at time during the festival.

You were supposed to bring a one year old lamb without any blemish to be sacrificed (Deut. 12:5–7). This was not easy to do. You would have raised that lamb for a year, feeding and nurturing it. It was very personal to you. It was the best of your livestock. It had tremendous value to you. It was almost like a pet. You would take great care to take care of this animal. Your children would probably play with it. Then when it was time for the Passover, you would have to carry it, often for many miles to Jerusalem for the sacrifice. It was hard work!

Then you would watch the priest kill this animal in front of you. You would be moved as you see this animal, which you took care of so sacrificially, die in front of you as its blood is spilled, representing a substitution for your sin. You would remember that God sacrificed lambs for your freedom back in Egypt and you would be thankful. Then you would begin a weeklong party full of thanksgiving and good food, including lamb, and eating herbs to remind you of the bitterness of slavery as well as unleavened bread, that is, bread without yeast, as yeast was a picture of impurity. In fact, they would clean every nook and cranny of their homes to get rid of yeast.

That was what was supposed to happen. But how inconvenient! What hard work! What sacrifice! This was too complicated! So people came up with a better way and the religious leaders supported it. Instead of all that inconvenience, what if people can buy the animals on sight? No need to worry about raising an animal and feeding costs and the inconvenience of carrying it all the way from home! Let’s make this more efficient. Let’s make a shortcut. So a business was created for people to buy the animals on the Temple grounds.  This was good business! The priests loved it. It supported their luxurious living at the expense of the poor Jew.

Now let’s say you actually did bring your own animal to the Temple. You would need to get it inspected. The priests hired inspectors and what are the chances your animal passed the inspection? 0%. They would find some reason to reject it and make you buy their animal instead. Oh yeah, there was also an inspection fee. This sounds like trying to get a flight nowadays right? $5 for a bag, $3 for coke, $2 to use the restroom (ever see that Southwest commercial?). Imagine if you walked in here and I said, first I will need 30% of all you made this week from each of you. Then to sit there is a $50 fee. Each song is $10 each and then $15 a minute to hear a sermon and you know how long Pastor Robin preaches!

In addition, when you showed up to the Temple, you would have to pay Temple Tax. Let’s say you made $4 a day for a salary. The Temple Tax would be $6, which was almost 2 days salary. Now that there were Jews from many different countries visiting, they often would have different currencies. Those were valid, but don’t you think about putting them in the Temple. They were unclean. Only Jewish coins were permitted. Do you think they gave you good rate? Of course not! And there was also a fee to exchange your coin. They also rented out rooms and offered many other services for insane amounts. It was a total rip-off.  It was not just the sheep that were fleeced that day. You were too! So for this problem of unclean foreign coins to pay the Temple Tax, another group of people had business there as well: the moneychangers.

Look at John 2:14. In the temple, Jesus found people selling oxen and sheep and pigeons and the money-changers were sitting there. The oxen, sheep and pigeons were all available depending on your background. Something for everybody! For example, pigeons or doves were required for the purification of women (Lev. 12:6Luke 2:22–24), especially if they were poor (Lev. 12:8Lev. 5:7), the cleansing of those with certain kinds of skin diseases (Lev. 14:22), and other purposes (Lev. 15:1429).[6] But it didn’t matter if you were poor or sick, you had to pay. Take a look at the Temple.

The Temple was for the glory of God and a light for the nations to get access to God. It was a symbol of Jewish national and religious identity. If you remember, the Jews first had a portable Temple called the Tabernacle. Then they had Solomon’s Temple, which ended up being destroyed when they went into captivity. Then once they came back, they rebuilt it under Zerubbabel (Ezra 3; Hag. 1-2; Zech. 4). When Herod took over, in order to win favor with the Jews, he made a “great enlargement of the second temple, one of the most costly and beautiful buildings on the earth. It was of white marble, with roofs of cedar, and was rather a collection of buildings, courts and porches than a single building, all within the temple enclosure covering nineteen acres.” [7] The Temple itself was 300 feet long, high and wide.

In front of the temple were four courtyards separated by four doors leading from one to the other. The first courtyard, the court of the Gentiles, was accessible to everyone. Men and women, Jews and Gentiles could all enter the court of the Gentiles. If you were not a Jew, but you wanted to know more about God and were a seeker trying to find God and looking to pray, you would be allowed to come to this area.  Most likely, the selling and buying took place where it says “Gentile’s Court.” Beyond the court of the Gentiles was the court of the Israelites. Gentiles were barred from this court upon penalty of death. The third courtyard was the court of men. Jewish males were the only ones allowed access to this court. Finally, adjoining the temple itself was the court of priests, where only priests were allowed admittance.”[8]

It is where God’s presence was to dwell. It is where priests interceded for you in prayer. It is where sacrifices were made. It was also a place where unbelievers had an opportunity to become part of the community of faith.

As Jesus walks into the courtyard, He sees no light leading a lost world to God. He notices a Gentile with his head bowed, eyes closed and hands clasped trying to pray. However, he is interrupted as a stack of coins at a nearby table fall to the ground, creating an intense scramble from people to gather the loose change. One of the men on the ground ends up stumbling next to the Gentile whose prayer is interrupted. An argument ensues.

As Jesus continues to walk along, He feels His heart break. Besides the sounds of coins clanking, sounds of animals also filled the Court. With the sounds come the smell of dung and urine. A wave of nausea splashes over Jesus. It was not the stench of animals that bothers Jesus. It is the stench of hypocrisy and religion gone bad. Instead of brokenness, thanksgiving, reflection, worship, it was like the Taste of Chicago. It was noisy commerce. Worship had become a circus! I don’t know the carnival was in town?! This sounds more like the trading floors of the New York Stock Exchange than the outer courts of the Temple of God.

Jesus watches another Gentile trying to find his own corner to pray, but he too interrupted as a man with a squirming lamb flung over his shoulder brushes past him. The place is loud and noisy and Jesus has had enough. Look at John 2:15. Jesus’ nostrils flare. His jaws clench. He walks near a table where he notices some cords, possibly from the bedding of animals or cords used to tie animals together, puts them together and creates a whip out of them. The disciples all look at each other in amazement, “What is going to do?”

His face becomes flushed. The veins in His neck and forehead protrude. He cracks the whip, sending some men to cower and huddle together on the ground in confusion. Jesus kicks over a table and two more men tumble backwards as their money starts skipping along the floor. With another smack of the whip, a dozen lambs scatter bleating for cover. Jesus walks down, row by row, reaching down and picking up the end of the tables and heaving them over.

Now it is chaos. Men scatter like leaves in the face of the whirlwind or tornado of the wrath of God. Jesus heads over to the man with a bunch of pigeons in bird cages and topples them over, setting the birds free. He says, “Get these out of here! How dare you make my Father’s house into a market!” (John 2:16). Wait, what did He call God? His Father? Then, what does that make Him? The Son of God!

Is this the Jesus we know? I thought He was a messenger of love? I thought He was like Mr. Rogers a spacey, weak, anemic-looking, hippie man wearing a dress who gave us statements we put as bumper stickers? Wow! This is no Mr. Rogers. This is Braveheart! He is declaring war on the entire religious establishment. God’s love is not a pampering love, as my old pastor used to say. It is a perfecting love.

He is a man’s man. This must have been some event. A single man is able to clear out the Temple like that. You do not just walk into the Temple and say, “Everybody out!” There was power in His Word. By the way, what kind of man must Jesus have been to be able to get beaten like that before He died and still be able to carry a 250 pound cross?

Jesus is cleaning house, His Father’s house. This was predicted back in Malachi 3:1-3. God was coming to the Temple to purify it. People are running, possibly even slipping on manure, falling on top of each other. Birds are flapping their wings everywhere. The religious leaders come out wanting to know what the ruckus is all about. The temple police are with them.

The disciples say to each other, “Mental note. Jesus hates hypocrisy.” Actually, look at John 2:17. They rememberPs. 69:9 where David suffers for His passion for God and His glory. But Jesus will not just suffer for His zeal and protecting the interests of God, but it will ultimately send Him to His death.

I wonder if the disciples are also thinking, “When was the last time anyone has shown this much zeal for God? When was the last time they saw a priest instead of exploiting people, but was standing up at injustice? When was the last time they saw a Pharisee weeping over his own sinfulness and asking God for mercy? How long has it been?” Perhaps they have never seen it; that is, until now. I wonder also if the thoughts run through their minds, “What kind of rabbi is this? What kind of strategy is this to launch a ministry? Aren’t you alienating people and making enemies, especially of the religious establishment?”

By the way, there has been confusion about how many times Jesus actually cleansed the Temple. John has it in the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, but Matthew, Mark and Luke put it at the end.[9] The details are totally different for all four instances to be the same event. Most likely, Jesus did one cleansing in the beginning of His ministry (John 2:12-22) and one cleansing at the end (the other three accounts). The second cleansing was inexcusable according to the religious leaders and eventually led to Christ’s death. They never got it and they never turned to God. Interestingly, Jesus, in his judgment on the Pharisees in Matt. 23, says to them, “Your house is left to you desolate” (Matt. 23:38). He no longer refers to it as His Father’s House because they refused to turn back to God. In AD 70, the Temple was actually destroyed.

Remember Jesus’ anger is not over business. It is over business in the Temple. It was where they decided to do business that angered Him. They were a bad witness to the lost who came to find out more about God and pray. Look at John 2:18. The Jews (most likely the scribes, priests and those of the temple police) are outraged and want to know on what authority Jesus can do what He has done. Are you a prophet or a Reformer of some sort? Prove to us that you have the right to do what you did. Hello?! Jesus just cleansed the Temple! Remember Malachi 3.

Interestingly, they do not deny that the Temple has become a market. No mention of Jesus’ accusation here. They just want to know what authority Jesus has to say this. Bob Deffinbaugh says, “Suppose you ran a stop sign and were pulled over by a police officer. If you were smart, you would politely listen to the officer, admit you were wrong, take the ticket, and pay it. If, however, you ran a stop sign and were pulled over by an irate citizen, you would be much less inclined to listen politely. Even if you were wrong, you would likely protest, ‘Who do you think you are, pulling me over to lecture me about my driving?’”[10] They thought Jesus was an irate citizen instead of the Son of God.

They should have been on their knees in repentance over their greed. They were angry. No one has confronted them like this before. They grew to love being surrounded by nice things, eating delicious meals, wearing fine clothes and all the pomp, power and prestige they received along with it. I mean, they had the table of honor at banquets and were invited to elite social gatherings where they rubbed shoulders with politicians and well-connected people. How can they lose that?

The good life became more important than a good heart. Profit took priority over prayer. Reaching into the pockets of people became more important than reaching the world. It was hypocrisy and they refused to let go of its grip, forcing Jesus to do what He did.

Asking for a sign revealed their wickedness. Their hearts were hard and had no intention of softening any time soon. Jesus tells them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up” (John 2:19). Jesus was talking about His body. He was telling them that Temple was a physical object pointing to the day when it will be replaced by Christ Himself. You want a sign? I will die as the Lamb of God to take away the sins of the world making the sacrifice system obsolete. Remember the moment Christ died, the curtain of the temple was torn in two (Matt. 27:51). That was the place where only priests can have access to God, now through Christ we all can (Heb. 10:19-22). Jesus is also saying, “I will die and then be resurrected to lay a new foundation for a spiritual temple called the church, where my presence will be the focus and I will dwell in all of its members.”

But they were blind and thinking only physically.[11] Herod had begun building this temple around 20 BC and they had been working on it for 46 years. They would still work on it for 37 more years (83 year project! And you complain about the construction on the highways in Chicago taking a long time!). Unfortunately, it stood complete for about 7 years before it was completely destroyed.

What Jesus is doing here is not just attacking corrupt Judaism, but basically tearing down all of Judaism and replacing it with Himself as the fulfillment of everything they were trying to do. The Temple is where God dwells is, sin is atoned for, people come to worship God, priests intercede for you in prayer and worship happens. This is all in Jesus now. Like the water into wine, the new would replace the old. The focus of worship will no longer be in a building, but in a person, Jesus Christ. The disciples themselves were confused about this, but later they put the pieces together.

Some implications for us here from this story. Jesus why the big deal? First of all,

I.   Worship is hypocrisy when convenience takes over conviction.

What happened to the people and encouraged by the religious leaders was lazy worship. They were thinking of short-cuts to worshipping God. They wanted to know what was the bare minimum they had to give. It was convenience that drove them, not conviction. I was thinking if they were still celebrating the Passover like that today, they would probably first try to find a used lamb on E-bay or Craig’s List (frozen or something) and then ship it to the Temple. They would then book a flight and rent a car online, head over to the Temple and there would be drive-thru. You are given a number and when your number was called, you can drive-thru and peek through a window and see your used dead lamb re-slain. Then you can try to sell it and see if you can get some money back afterwards!

Convenience is so important for people nowadays. Think about even people looking for a church. Is it close? Does it have childcare? Will the pastor make me feel fuzzy inside? What kind of music do they play for worship? What do you have to offer me? What can you do for me? Church, what have you done for me lately?

It reminds me of purchasing a computer. You can customize it any way you want. People try to do that with churches.  The problem is no church will all have all you ever want and so you are forever church hopping and church shopping. But I wonder what would happen if people came to church saying instead, “What can I offer to bless others today at church? Because I am here today, how I can help someone know God better?” See, that’s a conviction that the church does not exist to serve me, but I exist to serve the church.

We must make sure this does not creep in our walk with God. I’ll read the Word when it’s convenient. I’ll pray when it’s convenient. What? Bring a Bible to church? It weighs too much and I can’t put it in my pocket. It’s not convenient. Convenient people think of how quickly they can come and leave the church with little involvement as possible. Convicted people come recognizing what we are doing here today is a sacred encounter between Heaven and earth. They come ready to sacrifice, bless others and invest in each other’s lives.

Illus: Jenny was speaking to a friend who said in talking about church, “When I go to church, I just want to sit in a corner and worship God by myself.” This is convenient consumerism. In the end, it is hypocrisy because it is self-worship and not Christ-worship. About 10 years ago, I spent a month in India with an evangelist. I basically went to listen to him, follow him around and learn the ropes of ministry. But he had other things in mind. He woke me up at 5:30am every morning for morning prayer, even if we came home late the night before from ministry. That was inconvenient. When I got to the prayer room, his little grandchildren, servants, his children and their spouses were all on their knees with their Bible open. I never heard any complaints whether it was convenient for them or not. Then at all his meetings thousands of people would come taking two or three buses to pray and hear the Word. He made me sit with them on the stone floors. That was inconvenient. He made me learn my testimony in the native tongue to share it on the radio. That was inconvenient. I was so humbled there. I wanted him to serve me. He told me we all need to serve God. It was totally inconvenient for me, but one of the greatest blessings of my life.

I brag about you all the time because you all come and you are ready to give of yourself to bless others, by serving in some capacity here. It is not always convenient. But you still give. Praise God for that. I was speaking to a pastor friend of mine who told me he is ready to leave his church. I asked him why and he said there is absolutely zero desire for God. I asked about the leaders under him like the worship team. He said on any given Sunday, he makes the bulletin, gets up and leads worship and then puts his guitar down and preaches. I couldn’t believe it. I would leave too. You have a bunch of consumers there wanting to be served than wanting to serve. They are just a bunch of fat sheep sitting in the pew. Lord, may we never be! May conviction drive us, not convenience. Convenience needs to be driven out!

Second implication:

II. Worship is hypocrisy when consumerism takes over community.

What is appalling about what happened here was that they prevented others by their actions from knowing God. Jesus said about the Pharisees, “You don’t go to Heaven and you stop others from going either” (Matt. 23:13).Their business took place in the Court of the Gentiles. The whole courtyard was designed for outreach. It was for Gentiles to come and find the Lord. But now they had no room. No one thought twice about them because they cared more about making a deal and making sure everything is running smoothly and that they were making a profit. God forbid someone was actually interested in knowing about God. They forgot about community because consumerism and greed was taking over their lives.

Christian Consumerism is the belief that the church exists to serve you. The problem is that every image in the Bible of our purpose in the church describes as being part of something: sheep to a flock, a brick to a building, a part to a body and members of a family. Dan Kimball writes:

Here’s what consumer Christians and consumer churches fail to understand:
Your life is much bigger than a good job, an understanding spouse, and non-delinquent kids. It is bigger than beautiful gardens, nice vacations, and fashionable clothes. In reality, you are part of something immense, something that began before you were born and will continue after you die. God is rescuing fallen humanity, transporting them into his kingdom, and progressively shaping them into his likeness – and he wants you to be a part of it.[12]

Illus: From this we must remember that our church is not a museum for saints. What happens at a museum? Everyone is walking around observing and looking at dead things. We are to be a hospital for sinners. A hospital is messy with surgery taking place as well as healing. We must never forget that we are called to love others here at church. May all who walk in these doors know that they are walking into a community, not a social club, but a healing community. Consumerism needs to be kicked out!

III.   Worship is hypocrisy when form takes over function.

Lastly, the Temple was not an end in itself. It was a physical form that was pointing to a spiritual function. Jesus then said the Temple will soon be replaced with Himself. The Jews were caught up in the symbols and not the reality. Forms are avenues, structure for us to experience God.

We have several forms in our church. I have listed some of them:

Form Function
Sunday Service Meet with God by worshipping in community and proclamation of the Word to serve Him and others better
Sunday School Study the Bible in community to grow in knowledge and application of the Word
Bible Reading Plan Intentional reading of the Bible in community to grow in discipline, desire and delighting in the Word
Friday Night Meetings Mutual edification and spurring one another to love and good works; reaching the lost with the Gospel
Prayer Meetings To lift up our church and each other’s needs before the Lord

This is not an exhaustive list. I did not include others like children’s ministry, discipleship groups, giving, etc. When we forget the function and are doing the forms we are committing hypocrisy. We must constantly be reviewing our heart to make sure what we are doing is not the form for form’s sake.


Jesus desires us to worship Him in spirit and in truth (John 4:24). He is looking for authentic worshippers. Mahatma Gandhi when once asked about what he thought about Christianity said, “I like your Jesus, but I don’t like your Christians.” We are the only Bibles some people are ever going to read.

I just got a new Bible. I love the cover. I love the version (NLT) and the fact that it says, “Holy Bible” on it. Everyone see this? I’ll lift it up for everyone to see. Isn’t it nice? I am going to give to someone here and have that person look up John 2 for us. Come up here. What’s the matter? Oh wow, what a ripoff! The pages are blank! This is not a Bible, it’s a journal!

I don’t want to be a hypocrite. Come Lord Jesus into my heart and overturn all the tables there. Kick out all trespassers of my heart. Forgive me for laziness. Forgive me for wanting convenience over conviction and consumerism over community. Forgive me for doing the forms, without the function. Bring down all idols and make my heart a heart of prayer once again. May it be, for the Lord’s sake.


[1]Wiersbe, W. W. (1996, c1989). The Bible Exposition Commentary (Acts 5:1). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.

[2]Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996, c1989). Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament : Based on Semantic Domains (electronic   ed. of the 2nd edition.) (1:765). New York: United Bible Societies.

[3]Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature. (3rd ed.) (1038). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[4]Vine, W. E., Unger, M. F., & White, W. (1996). Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (2:316). Nashville: T. Nelson.

[5]The background here and following is from The Gospel of John : Volume 1. 2000, c1975 (W. Barclay, lecturer in the University of Glasgow, Ed.). The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. (109). Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

[6]Köstenberger, A. J. (2004). John. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (105). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker   Academic.

[7]Johnson, B. (1999). John : The New Testament Commentary, Vol. III (50). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[8]Courson, J. (2003). Jon Courson’s Application Commentary (451). Nashville,  TN: Thomas Nelson.

[9]Matt 21:10-17Mark 11:15-19Luke 19:45-46

[10] From accessed 7 February 2009.

[11] Unbelievers never get it in the Gospel of John (John 3:3–44:14–156:32–3551–527:34–368:51–5356–5710:1–6)

[12] Quoted in accessed 7 February 2009.


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